Religion Cases                                       Affirmative Action Cases

Cantwell v. Connecticut, 310 U.S. 296 (1940)
   Religious guarantees incorporated into 14th Amend.

Establishment Cases

Everson v. Board of Education of Ewing Tp.,
            330 U.S. 1 (1947)
     Use of tax money for parochial school transportion
McCollum v. Board of Education, 
            333 U.S. 203 (1948)
    Illinois on-campus religious instruction program
Zorach v. Clauson, 343 U.S. 306 (1952) released time program
Braunfeld v. Brown, 366 U.S. 599 (1961)
    Orthodox Jews object to Sunday closing laws
Engle v. Vitale, 370 U.S. 421 (1962)
     Prohibited official prayers in public schools
Abington School Dist. v. Schempp, 
            374 U.S. 204 (1963)
    Prohibits school sponsored Lord's Prayer reading
Sherbert v. Verner, 374 U.S. 398 (1963)
    S.C. denies workman's comp. to 7th-Day Adventist
Lemon v. Kurtzman, 403 U.S. 602 (1971)
    Court develops establishment clause guidelines
Gillette v. United States, 401 U.S.437 (1971)
    Conscientious Objection to service in Vietnam
Lynch v. Donnelly, 465 U.S. 668 (1984)
     City display of Christmas creche challenged
Allegheny County v. Greater Pittsburgh ACLU,
           492 U.S. 573 (1989)
     City display of religious holiday decorations
Board of Ed.of Kiryas Joel v. Grumet,
            114 S.CT 2481(1994)
     Public support for Hassidic Jewish schools questioned

Free Exercise Cases

Reynolds v.U.S., 98 U.S.145 (1878)
     Mormon challenges law against polygamy
Follett v. Town of McCormick, S.C.,
           321 U.S. 573 (1944)
     Can town license tax apply to religious tracts?
United States v. Ballard, 322 U.S. 78 (1944)
     Cultist charged with fraud: sent back to lower court
United States v. Ballard, 329 U.S. 187 (1946)
    Definition of fraud in religion cases, & women jurors
Wisconsin v. Yoder et al., 406 U.S. 205 (1972)
     Amish seek exemption from high school attendance
Employment Div., Ore. Dept. of Human Res. v. Smith, 494 U.S. 872 (1990)
    Use of peyote (illegal drug) in Indian religious rites
Church of Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah, 508 U.S. 520 (1993)
     Slaughter of animals in Senteria religious exercises
City of Boerne v. Flores, Archbishop of San Antonio, et al.,     U.S.    (1997)
     City denies a building permit for church expansion

Griggs v. Duke Power Co, 401 U.S.424 (1971)
    Use of diploma and IQ requirements in hiring
University of California Regents v. Bakke,
           438 U.S. 265 (1978)
    Use of race in university admissions
Steelworkers v. Weber, 443 U.S.193 (1979)
     Voluntary company affirmative action plan 
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Pena,
              515 U.S. 200 (1995)
     Use of race in government contracting practices
Taxman v. Board of Education of Piscataway,
     Third Circuit, U.S. Court of Appeals 
         #94-5090 (1996)
     A white teacher, a black teacher: one must go
Gratz v. Bollinger (2003)
      An applicant to U. of Michigan claimed she was rejected unconstitutionally because she was white. She won the case.
Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)
      An applicant to U. of Michigan law school claimed she was rejected unconstitutionally because she was white. She lost the case.