Psychology 101:  Introduction to Psychology

Course Description:  This course is designed to give the student a basic understanding of the psychology of human behavior. The student will be given exposure to the concepts, terminology, principles, and theories that comprise an introductory course in psychology. Topics covered are to synthesize the broad range of knowledge about psychology, to emphasize research methodology, to encourage critical thinking, and to convey a multicultural approach that respects human diversity and individual differences.

Course Objectives/Learning Outcomes:  Psychology 101 is designed to help students achieve five integrated goals that are important to understanding human behavior.  Upon completion of this course, students should be able to:

    1.  Define the term psychology and demonstrate command of the basic terminology, concepts, and principles of the discipline.
    2.  Gain knowledge of scientific methodology--the variety of ways in which psychological data are gathered and evaluated.
    3.  Identify and compare the major perspectives in psychology:  Recognize how each approach views human thought and behavior.
    4.  Recognize that human behavior is motivated, has multiple causes, and may be adaptive or maladaptive. Gain insight into one's own personality and personal relationships by thinking critically about psychological theories and principles.
    5.  Discuss the ways that psychological theories are used to assess, predict, or change human behavior and how psychology is applied to influence and improve the lives of human beings.

I am also hopeful that you will develop enthusiasm for psychology and learning as well as an appreciation for the variety and diversity of human experience.

Course Design:  This class is designed for an introductory course in psychology for 3 hours of college credit.  In order to be successful in this course, you must study and apply yourself.  The course material is not easy; yet, it is quite manageable if you put forth concentrated effort.

The textbook is designed to provide you with learning aids.  Please note how this book works for you.  Each chapter has a chapter outline, key terms to know, section reviews, short tests to check your learning, chapter summaries, suggested readings, Web sites, visual aids, research information, and applications of psychology features.  The SQ3R Method of studying is one that is based on psychological principles of learning and makes the learning process more enjoyable and efficient.  Please review and follow the suggestions given to you under the section in your textbook entitled: Before You Begin: Study Skills for Success and Strategies for Studying and Critical Thinking.

Online Learning Centers:  In addition to the in-text learning devices, the text has a full complement of ancillary resources to help you learn about psychology:  Online learning center, PowerWeb, In-Psych CD-Rom.  The CD-ROM provided with your textbook provides you additional opportunity for interactive simulations and exercises, reviews, and practice quizzes.  PowerWeb provides you with current articles, weekly updates with assessment, informative and timely world news, research tools, study tools, and interactive exercises.  A PowerWeb access card is packaged with your text.

Students also have access to supplementary instruction via video cassettes in the Academic Success Center located in Medford Library (2nd floor).  Each tape is approximately 30 minutes in length and can be viewed in the ASC at your convenience.  These tapes are not to be taken out of the ASC.  A list of the videos follows.

Learning objectives for each topic (chapter) covered follow.   

The official website of the American Psychological Association is:  http://www/  This site has links to divisions of the APA as well as general resources for students of psychology.  Another site is Psychweb ( http://www/ ).  It includes links to classic works in psychology and career information for psychology majors.

All of this is to facilitate your learning and to stimulate your critical thinking.  Psychology is an exciting course of study.

Learning Objectives/Learning Outcomes

I would encourage you to read all chapters in your textbook.  However, you will be held responsible only for the material presented in the chapters listed on your course outline and the learning objectives below.  I have chosen to feature those chapters and topics that I hold most important in an introductory course in psychology.

After studying the material, students should be able to:

Chapter I:  What is Psychology?
1.  Identify and define the four goals of psychology.
2.  Identify and compare and know the terms associated with the different perspectives of psychology.
3.  Describe the major specialities within psychology.
4.  Describe the relationship between psychology and psychiatry.

Chapter 2:  Research Methods in Psychology
1.  Distinguish between theories and hypotheses and discuss the importance of using representative samples in research.
2.  Recognize descriptive methods used in psychology and understand how they are used.
3.  Explain when and how formal experiements are used.
4.  Distinguish between a dependent and an independent variable; distinguish between a control group and an experimental group.
5.  Discuss the importance of:  placebo effect & blind experiments.
6.  List and define the major ethical principles of research with human participants. (5)
7.  List and define the major ethical principles of research with animals. (3)

Chapter 3:  Biological Foundations of Behavior
1.  Identify and label the parts of a neuron.
2.  Summarize the processes of neural transmission and synaptic transmission and know selected neurotransmitters.
3.  Differentiate the central nervous system from the peripheral nervous system and be able to list the functions of the somatic and autonomic nervous systems and describe the roles of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system.
4.  Identify the location and functions of the four lobes of the brain.
5.  Identify the location and functions of the hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain.
6.  Explain how the two cerebral hemispheres communicate and describe the changes that occur if the corpus callosum is severed.
7.  Identify the hormones related to endocrine glands and understand their functions.
8.  Know the relationship between genes and chromosomes and understand how dominant and recessive genes affect physical and behavioral traits.
9.  Summarize the role of twin studies and adoption studies in genetic research.

Test I will be derived from the learning objectives of Chapters 1, 2, & 3.

Chapter 4:  Nature and Nurture for class discussion.

Chapter 7:  Basic Principles of Learning
1.  Define classical conditioning and its terminology, including USC, UCR, CS, and CR, stimulus generalization,
     stimulus discrimination, and extinction.
2.  Define operant conditioning and its terminology, including primary reinforcement, secondary reinforcement,
     positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punishment, and response cost.
3.  Be able to apply the aspects of classical and operant conditioning to everyday examples.
4.  Compare and contrast the four schedules of reinforcement.
5.  Identify the guidelines for the appropriate use of punishment as a consequence of behavior.
6.  Describe the process in shaping a new behavior.
7.  Define modeling and explain the roles of vicarious reinforcement and vicarious punishment in learning.

Chapter 6:  States of Consciousness for class discussion.

Chapter 9:  (Section on Problem Solving, pages 269-276, and Intelligence pages 282-297):

1. Give the key steps in the process of using cognitive operations to solve problems.
2.  Explain creative problem solving.  Distinguish between convergent and divergent thinking.
3. Define intelligence and compare the position of psychologists who view intelligence as a general ability to those who view it as several specific abilities.
4.  Name the most widely used intelligence tests and discuss how they are useful.
5.  Define IQ and recognize the normal distribution of scores on "the bell curve."
6.  List the characteristics of good intelligence tests.
7.  Identify the factors that contribute to an individual's intelligence.
8.  Distinguish between different ranges of intelligence--from mental retardation to giftedness.

Test II will be derived from the learning objectives of chapters 7 & 9.

Chapter 12:  Personality Theories and Assessment
1.  Define the term personality from a psychological point of view.
2.  List and describe the "big five" personality traits.
3.  Distinguish among Freud's concepts of the conscious mind, the preconscious mind, the unconscious mind, and the id, ego, and superego.
4.  List Freud's stages of psychosexual development.
5.  Describe Alder's theory of personality as related to "feelings of inferiority" and birth order.
6.  Explain Jung's theory of extroversion and introversion and personal unconscious and collective unconscious.
7.  Discuss Bandura's social learning theory.
8.  Discuss humanistic theory as postulated by Rogers and Maslow.
9.  Know the ways in which personality is assessed and the difference between objective measures and projective measures.

Chapter 10:  Developmental Psychology
1.  Know what imprinting is and recognize the importance of critical periods of development.
2.  Recognize stage theories of development:
        Piaget--Cognitive Development
        Kohlberg--Moral Development
        Erikson--Personality Development
3.  Discuss the research results on adolescent social and emotional development.
4.  Recognize aspects of emotional and social development in adulthood.
5.  Know the biological and psychological changes that are involved in aging and recognize the factors associated with "happy aging" and longevity.

Chapter 11:  Motivation and Emotion
1.  Distinguish between motivation and emotion.
2.  Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation.
3.  Distinguish between primary motives and psychological motives.
4.  Explain Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (motives).
5.  Distinguish among the James-Lange theory, the Cannon-Bard theory, and the cognitive theory of emotion.
6.  Recognize the role of learning and culture in emotions.

Test III will be derived from the learning objectives of chapters 12, 10 & 11.

Chapter 13:  Stress and Health
1.  Describe stress and list the sources of stress.
2.  Discuss the relationship between life events and stress and the Holmes and Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale.
3.  Describe Selye's general adaptation syndrome.
4.  Explain the relationship between stress, depression, and the immune system.
5.  List and describe factors that influence reactions to stress.
6.  Identify the characteristics of the Type A personality and describe the relationship between Type A personality and heart disease.
7.  List and describe three effective methods of coping with stress.
8.  List and describe three ineffective methods of coping with stress.

Chapter 14:  Abnormal Behavior
1.  Define abnormal behavior.
2.  Describe the different ways abnormal behavior has been viewed throughout history, including supernatural theories, biological theories, and psychological theories.
3.  Define the concept of insanity.
4.  Know the 6 different categories of disorders, the specific disorders belonging to each category, the symptoms or characteristics of each specific disorder, and the cause of the disorder (if given).

Chapter 15:  Therapies
1.  Define Psychotherapy.
2.  Discuss ethical standards of psychotherapy.
3.  Recognize the following therapies:
                Humanistic psychotherapy
                Cognitive-Behavior therapy
                Group and Family therapy
                Medical therapies

Chapter 17:  Psychology Applied
1.  Identify the role of industrial-organizational psychologists in the workplace.
2.  Identify the traits of successful leaders and describe the challenges to women and minorities in leadership positions.
3.  Discuss the contributions of health psychology to the workplace.
4.  Explain the role of environmental psychologists.
5.  Identify the activities of educational psychologists and those of school psychologists.
6.  Identify the goals of mainstreaming as related to Public Law 94-142 and the IDEA.

Test III will be derived from the learning objectives of Chapters 13, 14, & 17.

Psychology 101 supplementary instruction via video tapes are located in the Academic Success Center (2nd floor Medford Library).  Each tape is approximately 30 minutes in length and can be viewed in the ASC at your convenience.  These tapes are not to be taken out of the ASC.  Please note the tape number does not always correspond with the chapter number.  Refer to the list below:

Tape No. 1            What is psychology?
Tape No. 3            Biology of Behavior
Tape No. 4            The Brain-Mind Connection
Tape No. 7            Learning
Tape No. 9            Decision Making & Problem Solving
Tape No. 11          Emotion
Tape No. 12          Motivation
Tape No. 14          Personality
Tape No. 15          Intelligence
Tape No. 17         Adolescent Development
Tape No. 18         Adult Development
Tape No. 19         Health, Stress, & Coping
Tape No. 20         What is Normal?
Tape No. 21         Psychotic Disorders

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